1. Work with nature rather than against (assist, don't fight against, natural development).
2. The problem is the solution (everything can be a positive resource if we know how to utilize it).
3. Make the least change for the greatest possible effect.
4. The yield of a system is theoretically unlimited (yield is only by the information and imagination of the designer).
5. Everything gardens (or has an effect on its environment).
1. Relative location.
2. Each element performs many functions.
3. Each important function is supported by many elements.
4. Efficient energy planning: zone, sector and slope.
5. Using biological resources.
6. Cycling of energy, nutrients, resources.
7. Small-scale intensive systems; including plant stacking and time stacking.
8. Accelerating succession and evolution.
9. Diversity; including guilds.
10. Edge effects.
11. Everything works both ways
12. Permaculture is information and imagination-intensive.
Finally, in 2002, David Holmgren, the co-originator of Permaculture (along with Mollison), restated the Principles of Permaculture in his book Permaculture: Principles and Pathways beyond Sustainability. He combined a few of the original principles and added some principles that were "understood" to be basic tenants of Permaculture. Basically, he simplified the Principles of Permaculture into more user friendly ideas. Here they are:
Twelve Principles of Permaculture
Every few days, I will highlight one of Holmgren's principles in a post, and expound upon it a bit. Remember that all Principles of Permaculture are to be used as tools while keeping the Ethics of Permaculture in mind.