Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Permaculture Plants: Other Walnut Species



A beautiful Butternut Tree in Ottawa, Canada.



Common Name: Butternut, Long Walnut, White Walnut
Scientific Name: Juglans cinerea

Cultivation information is the same as for the Black Walnut except that which is mentioned below.

Butternut Nuts

Butternut (bottom) compared to Black Walnut (top).

Butternut (top) compared to English/Persian Walnut (bottom).

Butternuts have a leaf appearance much closer to English/Persian Walnuts.
Black Walnuts have 15-23 leaflets
Butternuts have 11-19 leaflets.
English/Persian Walnuts have 5-9 leaflets.


Description:
Butternuts are one of the most cold hardy of all nut trees in the world.  Native to eastern North America.  They have very strong and light wood.  Butternuts are said to be shorter lived than the other walnut species.  Some varieties are easy to crack and others are very difficult, but they have a very good, almost buttery, nut flavor.

May take 20 years to begin producing, although some begin producing much sooner.  Butternuts typically produce one large crop every second or third year and smaller yields in between.

Butternuts are self-pollinating (self-fertile), but may produce higher yields with cross-pollination.

Butternuts can become bushy, so pruning to a strong central leader is recommended if you want a more “treelike” appearance.

Trivia:
  • NOT resistant to the walnut canker (from the fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum).
  • Butternuts are fairly intolerant of shade.
  • Listed as "Threatened" in Tennessee and of "Special Concern" in Kentucky.

USDA Hardiness Zone: 3-8
Size: 40-90 feet tall and 35-60 feet wide

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Common Name: Heartnut
Scientific Name: Juglans ailantifolia var. cordiformis


Cultivation information is the same as for the Black Walnut except that which is mentioned below.



Heartnut Nuts


The Heartnut Tree


Description:
Heartnuts are a Japanese species of walnut.  They are much closer to Black Walnuts than English Walnuts, but they maintain the superior flavor of the English Walnut.  Heartnuts are also very easy to crack.

May take 10 years to begin producing, though many produce much sooner.  Heartnuts may produce one large crop every second or third year and smaller yields in between.

Trivia:

  • Resistant to the walnut canker (from the fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum).
  • Closely related to the Butternut (Juglans cinerea) above.
  • The Heartnut lacks the bitter aftertaste of Black and English/Persian Walnut nuts.


USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-6
Size: 50-90 feet tall and 35-50 feet wide

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Common Name: Buartnut
Scientific Name: Juglans x bixbyi

Cultivation information is the same as for the Black Walnut except that which is mentioned below.

Buartnut nuts on the tree and husked.

Description:
Buartnuts are a fast-growing cross between the Butternut and the Heartnut.


Trivia:

  • Resistant to the walnut canker (from the fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum).
  • Buartnuts are easier to shell than its parents.
  • Can grow up to six feet in a year.
  • Start producing nuts in 3-6 years... much earlier than its parents.




USDA Hardiness Zone: 4-7
Size: 50-60 feet tall and wide

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